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I·CONnect

Blog of the International Journal of Constitutional Law

Public Law and Technology: Automating Welfare, Outsourcing the State

Sofia Ranchordas, University of Groningen

[Editor’s note: This is one of our biweekly I-CONnect columns. For more information about our four columnists for 2020, please click here. In 2020, Professor Ranchordas will blog about public law and technology, sharing some insights from her recent scholarship on digital exclusion as well as recent developments in this emerging subfield of law. Her scholarship lies at the intersection of public law and technology and it seeks to understand how digital technology is reshaping public values and challenging fundamental rights.]

In October 2019, the newspaper The Guardian dedicated a full week to the “automation of poverty,” analyzing controversial governmental practices throughout the world that involve employing technology not only to determine welfare eligibility but also to closely monitor welfare recipients. The use of digital technology and other surveillance techniques to prevent welfare fraud had also been criticized months earlier by the UN Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human rights, as well as in recent literature on data-driven social security. This blogpost continues this discussion, identifying some of the legal problems of automating welfare services, particularly when this automation involves private actors.

In the series “Automating Poverty,” The Guardian reported, for example, that in India, an identification biometric system now determines access to food stamps, pensions, and medical care to reduce the risk of fraud. Glitches in this system have nonetheless proven to be difficult to solve in a timely manner, with lethal consequences as a result. In the Netherlands, public bodies have succeeded at automating numerous social security services in the last years. A particularly controversial project in this context is SyRI, a risk assessment system developed by the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs, which predicts an individual’s probability of committing benefits fraud by analyzing large pools of personal data collected by several government agencies. When someone is ranked as ‘high-risk,’ public institutions are notified to start an investigation. While SyRI has not been particularly effective in detecting fraud, it has greatly contributed to increasing the stigma that accompanies poverty and welfare, as this system has primarily targeted low-income neighborhoods and minorities. Last year, a number of national human-rights and privacy associations and celebrities started a lawsuit against the Dutch state arguing, among other things, that this system is a disproportionate tool to protect the welfare state and violates Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights (the right to privacy). The District Court of The Hague is expected to deliver its much awaited decision later this month.

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Published on January 15, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Analysis
 

What’s New in Public Law


–Susan Achury, Miami University

In this weekly feature, I-CONnect publishes a curated reading list of developments in public law. “Developments” may include a selection of links to news, high court decisions, new or recent scholarly books and articles, and blog posts from around the public law blogosphere.

To submit relevant developments for our weekly feature on “What’s New in Public Law,” please email contact.iconnect@gmail.com.

Developments in Constitutional Courts

  1. The Turkish Constitutional Court ruled protecting journalist rights from the penalization of criticism against politics.  
  2. The Canadian Supreme Court sets a revised framework for judicial review of administrative decisions in an immigration case, Vavilov.
  3. Members of the US Congress urged the Supreme Court Thursday to reconsider, if not overrule, the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion nationwide.
  4. Colombia’s Constitutional Court recognized victims of sexual violence within ranks of the FARC.
  5. The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit released $3.6 billion for the border wall.
  6. The Peruvian Constitutional Tribunal recognized that freedom of expression protects workers from complaining about the company.
  7. The President of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) warned Poland over the overhaul of the judiciary.
  8. The Spanish Supreme Court prevents convicted Catalan independence leader from taking a seat in EU parliament

In the News

  1. Colombia’s former Constitutional Court president sentenced to prison over corruption.
  2. In Peru, a prosecutor asked for 12 years in jail for Kenji Fujimori in case of alleged vote purchase.
  3. Chile’s President signed off on a referendum to be held on a new constitution.
  4. The Peruvian Constitutional Tribunal published a proposal to reject lawsuit against the dissolution of Congress.
  5. Venezuela has two presidents: Maduro and Guaidó.
  6. US House of Representatives voted to limit further military actions against Iran.
  7. UK House of Commons passed Brexit deal.
  8. Singapore’s opposition party made the first legal challenge to fake news law.

New Scholarship

  1. Maartje De Visser, Non-Judicial Constitutional Interpretation: The Netherlands (forthcoming in 2020) (showing how executive and non-partisan bodies exercise their responsibility for evaluating the constitutionality of legislation). 
  2. Yonatan Fessha and Karl Kössler, Federalism and the Courts in Africa Design and Impact in Comparative Perspective (forthcoming in 2020)(examining the design and impact of courts in African federal systems from a comparative perspective)
  3. Francesco Biagi, European Constitutional Courts and Transitions to Democracy, Analisi e Diritto (2020) (examining the role of three generations of European constitutional courts in the transitions to democracy that took place in Europe in the twentieth century)
  4. Samuel R. Bagenstos, Disability and Reproductive Justice, Harvard Law & Policy Review, Vol. 14, 2020, Forthcoming) (examining the legal and societal treatment of fetuses and children with disabilities alongside the legal and societal treatment of parents with disabilities)
  5. Jason NE Varuhas and Shona Wilson Stark (eds.), The Frontiers of Public Law, Hart Publishing (2020) (exploring the frontiers of public law and examining cutting-edge issues at the intersection of public law and international law, indigenous peoples, criminal law and private law and public administration)
  6. Aslan, Volkan, Executive Decree Authority in Turkey Before the Constitutional Amendments of 2017: In Light of the Turkish Constitutional Court’s Retreat (2019) (examining the effects of the recent inflation of executive dominance on the Court’s ability to review emergency decrees)
  7. Ernst Hirsch Ballin, Gerhard van der Schyff and Maarten Stremler (eds.), Judicial Power – Safeguards and Limits in a Democratic Society in European Yearbook of Constitutional Law (2019) (examining the judicial function as a source of power in the contemporary constitutional context)
  8. Matthew Groves, Janina Boughey and Dan Meagher (eds.),  The Legal Protection of Rights in Australia (2019) (showing how influences of a common law heritage, a written constitution, statutory and common law innovations and a strong dose of comparative legal influences have led to the unique patchwork of rights protection in Australia)
  9. Miroslaw Granat and Katarzyna Granat (eds.), The Constitution of Poland: A Contextual Analysis (2019) (examining the institutional choices made in the Polish Constitution 1997, as well as the radical changes, in particular within the judicial branch, introduced by the new governing majority since 2015)

Call for Papers and Announcements

  1. Columbia Law School welcomes submissions for the Fall 2020 Works-in-Progress Workshop: Comparative Constitutional Law in the Global South in New York on October 2nd, 2020.
  2. The Forum for Law and Social Science at the University of Oslo will host the Conference on Empirical Legal Studies–Europe will host 2020 Empirical Legal Studies and has issued a call for paper for the conference on June 11-12, 2020.
  3. The National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (Kyiv, Ukraine) has just issued a call for submissions for Law and Politics Journal  6/2020 issue.
  4. The Central Summer University In cooperation with International IDEA, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung and the African Network of Constitutional Lawyers is offering a course on Constitution Building in Africa in Budapest-Hungary (June 29-July 8 2020).
  5. The Elon Law Review issues a call for papers for the 2020 Symposium – Access to the Ballot on the Eve of the 2020 Election: What Barriers Still Exist? The deadline for abstracts is Feb. 28, 2020.

Elsewhere Online

  1. Adem K Abebe, In the World of Constitution Building in 2019 and 2020 Prospects, ConstitutionNet
  2. Lisa Hilbink and Valentina Salas, Path to a New Constitution in Chile: How the Unthinkable Became the Inescapable, ConstitutionNet
  3. Scott B. MacDonald, Bolsonaro’s first year: Balancing the economy and cultural wars, Global Americans
  4. Tobias Franz and Andrei Gomez, Why is Colombia striking for change?, LSE blog
  5. Scott Hofer and Jason Casellas, Donald Trump has criticized Latino judges, but they are some of the most conservative jurists on the federal bench, LSE blog
  6. Andrei Dragan, The Conseil Constitutionnel’s decision on the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages – flawed, yet inevitable?, William & Mary Law School’s International and Comparative Law Blog
  7. Pawel Marcisz, Discipline and Punish: New Polish Reforms of the Judiciary, Verfassungsblog
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Published on January 13, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Developments
 

Invitation to Friends of I-CONnect: 2020 Global Conference on Constitution-Making and Constitutional Change


Richard Albert, William Stamps Farish Professor in Law and Professor of Government, The University of Texas at Austin

Friends of I-CONnect are welcome to attend a major international conference on “Constitution-Making and Constitutional Change,” to be held this coming week on January 17-18, 2020, at the University of Texas at Austin. Attendance is free.

The conference will welcome over 130 scholars from more than 20 countries. There will be a plenary program featuring the constitutionalism faculty at the University of Texas at Austin along with a series of concurrent sessions on all topics of constitution-making and constitutional change. The full program is available here.

This program is organized under the auspices of the International Forum on the Future of Constitutionalism, and sponsored generously by the University of Texas at Austin, the Constitutional Studies Program, and the Institute for Transnational Law.

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Published on January 12, 2020
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Special Announcement: I-CONnect Columnists for 2020

David Landau, Florida State University College of Law

The editors of I-CONnect are pleased to announce our new slate of columnists for 2020: Sofia Ranchordas, Andrea Scoseria Katz, Alexander Hudson, and Yvonne Tew. We are confident that they will provide a diverse and fascinating set of voices, representing a range of regional and substantive areas of focus, for the coming year.

We would also like to give thanks to our outgoing 2019 columnists — Dian A H Shah, William Partlett, Paola Bergallo, and Jill Goldenziel. We are grateful to each of these wonderful scholars for agreeing to serve as columnists last year, and think you will agree that they added an immense amount to the blog.

The format of the columns is the same as in previous years. The goal is to provide ICONnect with regular contributors who have a distinctive voice and unique perspective on public law. Columns, while scholarly in accordance with the tone of the blog and about the same length as a normal blog post, are a bit more “op-ed” in nature than standard posts. Each columnist will produce one column every two months.

Although we expect that many of our readers already know their work, we append brief bios for each of our new columnists below. Please join us in welcoming them to I-CONnect!

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Published on January 11, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Editorials
 

Iran and the Rhetoric of International Law

Jill Goldenziel, Marine Corps University-Command and Staff College

[Editor’s note: This is one of our biweekly I-CONnect columns. Columns, while scholarly in accordance with the tone of the blog and about the same length as a normal blog post, are a bit more “op-ed” in nature than standard posts. For more information about our four columnists for 2019, see here.]

[Professor Goldenziel’s views do not represent those of her University, the U.S. Department of Defense, or any other arm of the U.S. Government.]

Tuesday night, Iran responded to the strike that killed General Qasem Soleimani by sending non-precision missiles to strike a US military base in Iraq. The US military had advance warning of the attack—as Iran likely knew they would–and no lives were lost. On Twitter, Iranian foreign minister Javad Zarif quickly called the strike “. . . proportionate measures in self-defense under Article 51 of UN Charter.” Zarif’s interpretation of international law here is incorrect. However, his quick use of international law to defend Iran’s actions suggests the importance of couching this conflict in legal terms.

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Published on January 9, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Developments
 

Undoing Authoritarianism: Thailand’s Campaign to Amend the 2017 Constitution


–Khemthong Tonsakulrungruang, Faculty of Law, Chulalongkorn University

The 2017 Constitution has only been in effect for two years but the movement to amend, or even replace it, is spawning. The campaign for a constitutional change is spearheaded mainly by the opposition party, supported by several anti-junta groups. At present, the movement is in an infant stage. The government of Prayuth Chan-ocha, the former dictator and current prime minister government, appears reluctant, but the House of Representatives has already voted to set up a House committee to study the issue. Several public forums have been held, mostly in universities, to advocate the cause. A momentum is building. What is wrong with Thailand’s latest constitution? What is the impetus behind the movement? Will the opposition be able to amend the constitution?

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Published on January 8, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Analysis
 

Analyzing the Legality of the Soleimani Strike

Jill Goldenziel, Marine Corps University-Command and Staff College

[Editor’s note: This is one of our biweekly I-CONnect columns. Columns, while scholarly in accordance with the tone of the blog and about the same length as a normal blog post, are a bit more “op-ed” in nature than standard posts. For more information about our four columnists for 2019, see here.]

[Professor Goldenziel’s views do not represent those of her University, the U.S. Department of Defense, or any other arm of the U.S. Government.]

The killing of Iranian Major General Qassem Soleimani on 3 January has sparked widespread debate among national security and international lawyers as to the legality of his killing. Many media reports have shown misunderstanding of the legal issues involved. The legality of the strike must be considered under both US domestic law and international law, and legality under one does not determine legality under the other.  Moreover, the media often fails to grasp differences in meaning between key legal terms and their usage in common parlance. The strike on Soleimani was most likely authorized by US domestic law. However, more facts are needed to determine whether the killing of Soleimani was legal under international law and the law of armed conflict. The US government would be wise to release those facts, if doing so is possible without compromising intelligence and military operations.  In this way, the US could reclaim the unfolding narrative surrounding the strike.

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Published on January 7, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Developments
 

What’s New in Public Law


–Mohamed Abdelaal, Assistant Professor, Alexandria University Faculty of Law

In this weekly feature, I-CONnect publishes a curated reading list of developments in public law. “Developments” may include a selection of links to news, high court decisions, new or recent scholarly books and articles, and blog posts from around the public law blogosphere.

To submit relevant developments for our weekly feature on “What’s New in Public Law,” please email contact.iconnect@gmail.com.

Developments in Constitutional Courts

  1. The Court of Appeal of Belize upheld a decision of the High Court declaring that section 53 of the Belize Criminal Code is unconstitutional.
  2. Chile’s Environmental Court ruled in favor of indigenous complaints.
  3. The Turkish Constitutional Court found that the freedom of expression of a journalist has been violated.
  4. The Turkish Constitutional Court concluded that the right to life of a patient was violated as her death was caused by medical negligence.
  5. In Albania, the Constitutional Court is set to decide on the constitutionality of a special law that allows the demolition of the National Theater.

In the News

  1. In Ireland, a new birth control bill has been proposed.
  2. The chairman of Armenia’s Constitutional Court has been charged with abuse of power.
  3. In Thailand, the opposition increases pressure to amend the constitution.
  4. In Siri Lanka, a constitutional amendment has been proposed to expand presidential powers.

New Scholarship

  1. Penelope Andrews, The ‘Casserole’ Constitution: The South African Constitution and International Law (2020) (addressing the impact and the role of international law in the drafting of the South African constitution as well as in the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.)
  2. Benjamin Low, Full Powers and the Constitutional Doctrine of Implied Amendments (2019) (discussing the applicability of the doctrine of implied amendments to the Constitution of Singapore.)
  3. Jaclyn L. Neo, Dimensions of Religious Harmony as Constitutional Practice: Beyond State Control, 20 German Law Journal (2019) (arguing that religious harmony can mean many things and can be used in a myriad of ways that go beyond simply as a tool for state control.)
  4. Erdem Büyüksagis, Towards a Transatlantic Concept of Data Privacy, 30 Fordham Intellectual Property, 30 Media & Entertainment Law Journal (2019) (arguing that the regulatory and case law developments on both sides of the Atlantic hint at a harmonization process of data protection standards because of the ever-growing recognition of the need for specific data protection laws and their substantive convergence.)
  5. Chintan Chandrachud, Structural Injunctions and Public Interest Litigation in India, in P J Yap, Constitutional Remedies in Asia (2019) (analysing the use of structural injunctions by the Supreme Court of India, and in particular, the continuities in how, why and when the Court decides to deploy these injunctions.)
  6. Brian Slattery, Aboriginal Title and the Royal Proclamation of 1763: Origins and Illusions (2019) (arguing that modern law is in fact grounded in ancient doctrines of common law that evolved in British North America from the early days of settlement.)
  7. Michael Shammas, What’s Behind Rising Authoritarianism: Answers from Political Psychology & the Third Reich (2019) (examining the rise of the Third Reich to show how economic and political uncertainty has and can undermine liberal democracy.)
  8. Chintan Chandrachud, The Cases That India Forgot (2019) (arguing that courts are not always on the right side of history or justice, and they don’t always have the last word on the matters before them.)

Calls for Papers and Announcements

  1. Submissions are welcome for the Tenth International Conference on Health, Wellness & Society to be held at Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3 on September 3, 2020, to September 4, 2020.
  2. A Call for Papers has been issued for the International Workshop ‘Media Representations of Law and Justice: Middle Eastern Perspectives.’
  3. The International Journal on Consumer Law and Practice (IJCLP) is seeking submissions for its upcoming volume.
  4. The Jamia Law Journal invites submissions of original papers for its upcoming volume.
  5. The social science conferences 2020 is seeking submissions related to the following conference topics: Society and Sociology, Communication, Politics,Law, Humanities and Culture.

Elsewhere Online

  1. Valentina Scotti, Women’s suffrage, The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law.
  2. Asem Khalil, Statutory Law, The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law.
  3. Dan Harris, Held Hostage in China: How to Make Like Carlos Ghosn and Escape, China Law Blog
  4. Thomas DeLorenzo, UN rights expert: US assassination of Iranian official violated international human rights laws, JURIST
  5. Varun Kannan, The Constitutionality of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act – A Rejoinder, Indian Constitutional Law and Philosophy
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Published on January 6, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Developments
 

Meet the 2020 Team for “What’s New in Public Law”


–The Editors

Exactly six years ago on January 5, 2014, we published the very first edition of “What’s New in Public Law.”

Its format today is largely unchanged, and its purpose has remained the same: to update our readers on recent developments in public law around the world. Developments include news from constitutional and supreme courts, new scholarship in public law, calls for papers, and highlights from around the blogosphere.

As we enter this new calendar year, we take this occasion to recognize our outgoing 2019 team members for their contributions to I-CONnect: Davide Bacis, Vicente F. Benitez R., Angelique Devaux, Nausica Palazzo, and Sandeep Suresh. We thank them for being an integral part of our team!

We are also pleased to introduce the team that will bring you “What’s New in Public Law” throughout 2020. We thank each of the scholars below for the great service they will provide for the entire field of public law.

We invite you to get to know them with the bios they have prepared about themselves.

As a reminder, we welcome your submissions of items to include in “What’s New.” Please send them by email to contact.iconnect@gmail.com. We require weblinks for all submissions; we do not upload documents, whether in PDF, Word or otherwise.

Mohamed Abdelaal is an Assistant Professor of Law at Alexandria University Faculty of Law in Alexandria, Egypt and Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Indiana Robert H McKinney School of Law in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. He focuses his teaching and scholarship on the areas of Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Comparative Law, and Islamic Law. Abdelaal has published widely on constitutional law and comparative law and he served as a presenter and panelist in several law conferences and workshops in USA. Meanwhile, he is licensed to practice law in Egypt and he is admitted as a certified arbitrator under the Egyptian Law. He is also a permanent member of the Egyptian American Rule of Law Association (EARLA), Washington D.C., and has been invited for three consecutive years (2012-2013-2014) to serve as an Egyptian expert to draft the Rule of Law Index Report sponsored by the World Justice Project (WJP).

Susan Achury is a Visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at Miami University, Oxford-Ohio. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Houston, a master’s degree in political science from the University of Texas at El Paso, and a law degree from La Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Her research focuses on the institutional design of judicial review in Latin America, specifically in how broad access and lower barriers of non-justiciability to constitutional justice increase courts’ influence on policy outcomes. Her research also evaluates gender and racial representation in the US judiciary, as well as, intra-parties, and electoral rules. At Miami University, Susan teaches courses on Constitutional Law. 

Simon Drugda is a PhD Candidate in Law at the University of Copenhagen. He joined the Centre for European and Comparative Legal Studies (CECS) in September 2018, to work on a project on Judicial Reputation. His doctoral research builds on compliance-reputation theories proposed by Shai Dothan (2015) and Nuno Garoupa and Tom Ginsburg (2015). Simon investigates how three high courts in Denmark, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom manage their reputation through outreach activities and decision-making. Simon is a co-editor of the I·CONnect-Clough Global Review of Constitutional Law. His research interests are constitutional change, judicial speech, judicial studies, and all topics in comparative constitutional law.

Chiara Graziani is a Ph.D. Candidate and Research Fellow in Constitutional Law at the University of Genoa (Italy). She is also an academic fellow at Bocconi University, Milan (Italy). Her main research areas are human rights, national security and counter-terrorism measures, but she also studies other constitutional law-related issues, such as Brexit and its constitutional implications. Chiara published several works in Italian and in English and she was a visiting fellow in some foreign academic institutions, such as the Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland), the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg (Germany), the University of Valencia (Spain). She regularly takes part in conferences and seminars in Italy and abroad. She is a member of the IACL Research Group on Constitutional Responses to Terrorism and of the editorial boards of some Italian law journals. 

Claudia Marchese is a Research Fellow in Comparative Public Law and Lecturer at the University of Milan (Italy). She is also a teaching assistant at the University of Naples “Suor Orsola Benincasa”. She holds a Ph.D. in Public Law from the University of Rome “Tor Vergata” and in recent years collaborated with the research office of the Italian Constitutional Court. She was a visiting fellow in the Centro de Estudios Politicos y Constitucionales, Madrid (Spain). Claudia has national and international publications in comparative public law and constitutional law. Her research interests include political rights, democracy, social rights, public finance, megacities and development.

Matteo Mastracci is a Ph.D. Candidate in Public Law at Koç University, Istanbul. His main research interests are European Union Law, Comparative Constitutional Law, International and Human Rights Law, Political Theory and Populist Constitutionalism. He holds a Bachelor Degree in Law from University of Teramo (Teramo, Italy), a postgraduate Degree in International Criminal Law and Corporate Crimes from LUISS School of Law (Rome, Italy) and an LL.M. degree in Public International Law and Human Rights from Riga Graduate School of Law (Riga, Latvia). Currently, as a doctoral researcher, he is conducting comparative studies on Populist Constitutionalism, Judicial Independence and Rule of Law, both at European and International level.

Teodora Miljojkovic is an S.J.D. student at Central European University, Budapest.  Her research focuses on the principle of the rule of law as a constitutional value in illiberal democracies and its abuses. In her previous LL.M. thesis, she explored the role and impact of the constitutional courts in the democratization process of post-communist countries. Teodora is a member of the editorial board of Eudaimonia – Journal for Legal, Political and Social Theory and Philosophy. She is also a organizing team member of the Student Conference in Theory and Philosophy of Law at the University of Belgrade Law School.

Gaurav Mukherjee is an S.J.D. candidate in Comparative Constitutional Law at the Central European University, Budapest (CEU). Gaurav’s doctoral project examines the ways in which social rights cases adjudicated in courts in India, South Africa, and Kenya lead to participatory forms of judicial review that address concerns on polycentricity, institutional competence, and separation of powers. He is a co-convenor of the International Association of Constitutional Law (IACL) Research Group on Social Rights. Gaurav was an Indian Equality Law Visiting Fellow at the University of Melbourne in Winter, 2019. In 2018, Gaurav was awarded the Indian Law Review Early Career Prize for Case/Legislative Notes for his article analysing the shortcomings in a decision delivered by the Supreme Court of India on executive law-making power. His work has been published or is forthcoming in a number of journals and online publications, including the German Law Journal, the Oxford Human Rights Hub Journal, the Indian Law Review, and the Verfassungsblog. 

Eman Muhammad Rashwan is a Ph.D. candidate at the program of European Doctorate in Law & Economics (EDLE), University of Hamburg. She is also an Assistant Lecturer of Public Law at Cairo University, where she earlier obtained her bachelor of laws (English section) and her first Masters Degree in Public Law and Administrative Sciences. She holds a second LL.M. in Law and Government from American University, Washington College of Law, The USA. Eman has international publications in the different fields of public and international law. Her current research focuses on empirical legal studies and constitutional changes after revolutions.

Pedro Arcain Riccetto is a Ph.D candidate at the University of São Paulo (Brazil), currently researching at Harvard Kennedy School as a Democratic Governance Fellow (US). In the past three years he held research positions at the University of Oxford (UK), Yale University (US), Sciences Po (France), and the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (Germany). Moreover, Pedro worked at the Brazilian Congress and the UK Parliament. His research interests include judicial politics, comparative government, and policy-making, with special focus in Latin America. For his dissertation, he proposes a model to analyze under which institutional circumstances the power granted to a Court to review constitutional amendments enhances democracy. He tests the model by performing a cross-country comparison of the Courts in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Peru.

Maja Sahadžić is Researcher at the Government and Law Research Group at the Faculty of Law, the University of Antwerp, where she earned her Ph.D. She conducts empirical and qualitative research on the concepts of constitutional asymmetry, multi-tiered systems, and multinationalism. She explores the concepts by using the indicators of constitutional asymmetries, QRQs, statistical methods, and QCA analyses in proving the link between constitutional asymmetry and multinationalism and investigating the effects of constitutional asymmetry on legitimacy and stability. Her work experience includes earlier academic positions at universities in B&H, Croatia, and the USA. She is also an expert legal advisor and lecturer.

Boldizsár Szentgáli-Tóth is a research fellow of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Legal Studies; and the Eotvos Loránd University, Department of Constitutional Law. He also serves as the research- and science manager of the Bibó István College of Advanced Legal Studies. He has defended his Ph.D thesis in November 2018, his topic was the past, present, and future of organic law. He also holds an LL.M degree of comparative constitutional law from the Central-European University, Budapest, and also an European- and Comparative law master 1. maitrise degree from the Université Panthéon Assas Paris II. He has published almost 100 academic contributions on either English and Hungarian language, and he has participated successfully as speaker in several international scientific forums.

Swapnil Tripathi is an attorney practising law in New Delhi, India. He read law at National Law University, Jodhpur (India) where he specialised in the Constitutional Law Hons. programme. He has served as a Teaching Assistant to Prof. I.P. Massey in the subjects of Comparative Constitutional Law and Administrative Laws and has also interned under Hon’ble Dr. Justice D.Y. Chandrachud (Judge, Supreme Court of India). He is a regular columnist on issues of constitutional law for leading news agencies and also runs his personal blog titled “The ‘Basic’ Structure” where he explains core constitutional law concepts for a common man’s understanding.

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Published on January 5, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Developments
 

I-CONnect at the AALS Annual Meeting in Washington, DC


–The Editors

The I-CONnect Editors will all be in Washington, DC, this week for the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Law Schools.

Tom Ginsburg will participate in a panel on “Representation, Voting, and Sustainable Constitutional Democracy” Sunday, January 5, from 1:30pm to 3:15pm in the Marriott Ballroom Salon 2. Other panelists include Guy-Uriel Charles (Duke), Pamela Karlan (Stanford), Michael Morley (Florida State) and Kim Lane Scheppele (Princeton).

David Landau will participate in a panel on Richard Albert’s book “Constitutional Amendments: Making, Breaking, and Changing Constitutions” (Oxford University Press, 2019) on Thursday, January 2, from 5:30pm to 7:15pm in Delaware Suite A. Other panelists include Erin Delaney (Northwestern), Eugene Mazo (Rutgers), and Julie Suk (CUNY).

And Richard Albert and David Landau will both participate in a panel on Mark Tushnet’s distinguished career as a scholar of comparative law. The panel will be held on Sunday, January 5, from 8:30am to 10:15am in Virginia Suite C. Other panelists include Erin Delaney (Northwestern), Vicki Jackson (Harvard), Sanford Levinson (Texas) and Yvonne Tew (Georgetown).

Friends of I-CONnect are invited to come say hello.

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Published on January 1, 2020
Author:          Filed under: Developments